Views:7 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-03-20 Origin:Site
In modern clinical medicine, the ventilator, as an effective means to artificially replace the autonomous ventilation function, has been widely used in respiratory failure caused by various reasons, anesthesia and respiratory management during major surgery, respiratory support treatment and emergency resuscitation. Occupies a very important position in the field of modern medicine. The ventilator is a vital medical device that can prevent and treat respiratory failure, reduce complications, save and extend the life of patients.
1. Classified by type of use or application
(1) Controlled Mechanical Ventilation (CMV) Definition: When the patient's spontaneous breathing diminishes or disappears, the patient's breathing is generated, controlled, and regulated entirely by a mechanical ventilator. 2. Application: The spontaneous breathing disappears or weakens due to the disease; when the spontaneous breathing is irregular or the frequency is too fast and the mechanical ventilation cannot be coordinated with the patient, the spontaneous breathing is artificially suppressed or weakened.
(2). Auxiliary Mechanical Ventilation (AMV) Definition: In the presence of patient breathing, the ventilator assists or enhances the patient's spontaneous breathing. The types of mechanical ventilation are mainly triggered by the patient's inspiratory negative pressure or inspiratory airflow. 2. Application: Although spontaneous breathing exists and is more regular, patients with spontaneous breathing weakened and insufficient ventilation.
2. Classified by use of mechanical ventilation
(1) intrathoracic or airway compression type
(2) chest shape
3. Classification by switching between inhalation and exhalation
(1) Constant pressure type: After the pressure in the airway reaches the expected value, the ventilator opens the exhalation valve, and the thoracic and lungs passively collapse or produce expiration by negative pressure. When the pressure in the airway continues to drop, the ventilator passes the positive pressure again Generates airflow and causes inhalation.
(2) Constant volume type: The expected tidal volume is sent into the lungs through positive pressure. When the estimated tidal volume is reached, the air supply is stopped and the exhaled state is entered.
(3) Timing type: Supply air according to the pre-designed inspiratory and expiratory time. (4) Hybrid (multifunctional).
4. Air supply according to ventilation frequency
(1) High-frequency ventilation: ventilation frequency> 60 times / minute. 1. Advantages: low airway pressure, low intrathoracic pressure, small interference to the circulation, no need to close the airway 2. Disadvantages: Not conducive to the removal of carbon dioxide. 3． Classification: high frequency positive pressure ventilation, high frequency jet ventilation, high frequency oscillating ventilation.
(2) Ordinary frequency ventilation: ventilation frequency <60 times / minute.
5. Classified by sync device or performance
(1) Synchronous ventilator: When the patient's spontaneous breathing starts, the ventilator can be triggered to supply air to the patient's respiratory tract and produce an inspiratory action.
(2) Non-synchronized ventilator: The patient's breathing or inspiratory negative pressure cannot trigger the ventilator to supply air, and is generally only used for patients with controlled mechanical ventilation.
6. Classified by applicable objects
(1) Baby ventilator
(2) Infant ventilator (3) Adult ventilator
7. Classified by working principle
(1) Simple ventilator
(2) membrane lung